Miscarriage Causes, Complications, Prevention And Treatment


An unintended loss of pregnancy before the 20th week is referred to as a miscarriage. Ten to twenty per cent of all known pregnancies result in miscarriages. But, the actual number is likely higher because a lot of losses occur very early in pregnancy, sometimes before you even know you are expecting.

The term "miscarriage" may suggest that something went wrong during the carrying of the pregnancy. This is not always the case, though. The majority of miscarriages occur because the foetus is not developing appropriately.

Miscarriage is a pretty common event, but it does not make it any easier. You can prevent miscarriages by being aware of what causes them, what increases the risk, and what medical care may be necessary.


Issues with the chromosomes or genes

The majority of miscarriages occur because the foetus is not developing appropriately. In around 50% of instances, miscarriages are caused by excess or missing chromosomes. Chromosome problems frequently result from unintentional errors made during the division and development of the embryo rather than genetic flaws acquired from the parents.

Chromosome issues might result in:

Contaminated egg. With a blighted ovum, no embryo develops.

Infant death within the womb. An embryo hatches in this situation, but before any symptoms of pregnancy loss appear, it stops developing and dies.

Molar pregnancy. The father is the source of both sets of chromosomes in a molar pregnancy. The placenta grows abnormally during a molar pregnancy, and the fetus typically does not develop.

Incomplete molar pregnancy

This occurs when the mother's chromosomes are still present but the father contributes two sets. Often, a partial molar pregnancy is accompanied by anomalies in the placenta and the fetus.

Pregnancies involving molars or partial molars are not viable pregnancies. Sometimes, placental malignant changes are connected to molar and partially molar pregnancies.

Maternity health issues

A miscarriage can occasionally be brought on by a mother's health concern. Examples comprise:

  • Unmanageable diabetes
  • Infections
  • Hormonal issues
  • Cervical or uterine issues
  • Thyroid condition

What does not result in a miscarriage?

Some commonplace actions do not cause miscarriages:

  • Exercise, particularly vigorous ones like running and cycling.
  • Sexual activity.
  • Working, so long as you are not exposed to radiation or toxic chemicals. If you are worried, consult your doctor.

Risk Factors

Miscarriage risk is affected by a number of circumstances, including:

Age. A miscarriage is more likely to occur in women over the age of 35 than in younger ones. You have a 20 per cent risk at age 35. Around 40% of people at age 40 are at risk. And by age 45, it is almost 80%.

Miscarriages in the past. Women are more prone to miscarry again if they have done so twice or more in a succession.

Chronic diseases. Women with chronic conditions, including uncontrolled diabetes, are more likely to miscarry.

Cervical or uterine issues. Certain uterine disorders or weak cervical tissues may raise the chance of miscarriage (incompetent cervix).

Illegal substances, alcohol, and smoking. Smokers are more likely to experience a miscarriage than non-smokers. The use of illegal drugs and alcohol both raises the chance of miscarriage.

Weight. Being overweight or underweight has been linked to a higher risk of miscarriage.

Invasive prenatal examinations. There is a small chance of miscarriage with several invasive prenatal genetic testing, including chorionic villus collection and amniocentesis.


Pregnancy losses often happen before the 12th week.

Among the warning signs and symptoms of a miscarriage are:

  • Bleeding or spotting in the vagina
  • Abdominal or lower back pain or cramps
  • Your vagina is leaking fluid or tissue

Put any fetal tissue you have discharged from your vagina in a clean container and bring it to your doctor's office or the hospital for testing.


There is frequently nothing you can do to stop a miscarriage. Simply concentrate on looking for yourself and your infant:

  • Look for routine prenatal treatment.
  • Avoid behaviors known to increase the chance of miscarriage, including smoking, consuming alcohol, and using illegal drugs.
  • Take a multivitamin every day.
  • Use caffeine in moderation. According to a new study, having more than two caffeinated drinks each day may increase your chance of miscarriage.
  • In order to keep a chronic ailment under control, collaborate with your medical team.


A possible miscarriage

If a miscarriage is about to occur, your doctor could advise sleeping until the bleeding or discomfort ceases. Although it has not been proven that bed rest can stop miscarriages, it is occasionally advised as a precaution. Exercise and sexual activity may also be prohibited. Although it has not been demonstrated that these actions lower the chance of miscarriage, they could make you feel more comfortable.

In some circumstances, it is also a good idea to put off travel, particularly to places where it would be challenging to get timely medical attention. See your doctor to determine whether it would be wise to postpone any upcoming trip arrangements.


It is now much simpler to identify whether an embryo perished or was never developed thanks to ultrasound technology. Either result indicates that a

miscarriage will undoubtedly happen. In this situation, you can have several choices:

Expectant leadership. You could decide to let the miscarriage develop naturally if there are no symptoms of infection. Often, this occurs a few weeks after it has been determined that the embryo has died. That may, regrettably, take three or four weeks. That may be emotionally challenging right now. If ejection does not occur naturally, you may need medical or surgical intervention.

Medical attention. If you would like to expedite the procedure after learning that you have lost a particular pregnancy, medicines can make your body evacuate the placenta and pregnancy tissue. The drug can be inserted into the vagina or administered orally. Your medical professional could advise putting the medication be administered vaginally to maximize efficacy and reduce adverse effects including nausea and diarrhea. Throughout a 24-hour period, this therapy is effective for around 70 to 90 percent of women.

Surgical procedure. Suction dilation and curettage, a small surgical treatment, is an additional choice (D&C). Your doctor will dilate your cervix and remove tissue from the inside of your uterus during this surgery. Although complications are uncommon, they might result in harm to your cervix's connective tissue or the uterine wall. If your miscarriage is followed by significant bleeding or symptoms of an infection, surgery may be necessary.

Physical restoration

Physical healing following a miscarriage often takes from a few hours to a few days. Call your health center while you wait if you develop severe bleeding, a fever, or stomach ache.

As soon as two weeks following a loss, you could ovulate. Between four to six weeks, you should start having periods again. Any kind of contraception can be used as soon as a miscarriage occurs. During the two weeks following a miscarriage, you should refrain from having intercourse or placing anything in your vagina, such as a tampon.

Upcoming pregnancies

Immediately following a miscarriage, it is possible to become pregnant throughout the menstrual cycle. But if you and your spouse do decide to try for another child, make sure you are prepared on both a physical and emotional level. See your doctor for advice on the best time to attempt to conceive.

Miscarriage often only happens once. Most miscarried mothers go on to have

successful pregnancies following a miscarriage. Less than 5% of women experience two consecutive miscarriages, and 1% experience three or more in a row.

If you have several miscarriages, often two or three in a row, you might want to get tested to see if there are any underlying problems. These factors might include chromosomal, blood clotting, or uterine issues. Do not give up if the reason for your miscarriages can not be found. Approximately 60 to 80 per cent of women who experience recurring, unexplained miscarriages go on to become pregnant normally.

Complications of Miscarriage

Some women who miscarry get a uterine infection. Another name for this is a septic miscarriage. The following are the symptoms and signs of this infection:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Soreness in the lower abdomen
  • Obnoxious vaginal discharge


For further information please access the following resources:

Emergency : +91 89686 77907

Front Desk : +91 98018 79584

Page last reviewed: Mar 30, 2023

Next review due: Mar 30, 2025

Call us

Emergency : +91 89686 77907

Front Desk : +91 98018 79584

Follow us