Testicular Pain Causes, Prevention, Symptoms And Treatment


Testicular torsion (twisting), an emergency condition, can cause testicular discomfort in addition to acute injury, inflammation, sexually transmitted diseases, and other causes. This ailment may result in swelling as well as a dull aching in the scrotum. Additionally, testicular pain may be a symptom of more serious conditions like testicular cancer.

Males of any age might suffer from testicular discomfort. The scrotum is a little pouch of skin that houses the testicles (testes), which are tiny reproductive (sex) organs that resemble an egg.

One or both testicles may be painful if you have testicular discomfort. However, it is possible that your testicles are not the source of the pain. It is possible that your stomach or groin area is where the discomfort is coming from. This type of suffering is known as referred pain.

Both acute (sudden and brief) and chronic (gradual and long-lasting) testicular discomfort are possible. A dull ache that becomes worse over time or with exercise may be your initial sign in addition to the quick, severe pain of an injury. As the testicles have so many delicate nerves, testicular pain can be extremely painful.

If your discomfort lasts more than an hour or is exceptionally severe, you should seek medical attention since this may indicate a serious condition.


If you recently had an injury or were involved in an accident, the cause of your testicular discomfort could be evident, but in other circumstances, it might not be.

Some potential causes of testicular discomfort include:

Testicular trauma or injury: Sports, physical activity, or accidents can all result in testicular trauma.

Orchitis: A bacterial or viral infection may result in inflammation (swelling and a burning feeling) in one or both testicles. Orchitis in youngsters might potentially be brought on by the mumps virus. When it comes to the mumps, the swelling often begins four to six days after the mumps first appear. A section of your intestine pulls through a weak spot in your groin, causing an inguinal hernia.

Your groin-area abdominal muscles. Although it rarely poses a threat, it can still be painful. If it hurts, you should visit a doctor right at once since you could need surgery right away.

Epididymitis: The epididymis is inflamed, resulting in this disorder. The epididymis is a series of tiny tubes that are tightly coiled and used to transport sperm from the testicles to the sperm duct and outside of the body. Pain and inflammation are epididymitis symptoms. It is possible for the scrotum to feel heated and swollen. Days to weeks may pass throughout this. Epididymitis that is chronic lasts longer than six weeks.

A spermatocele is a fluid-filled pocket that can develop inside the epididymis close to the testicles. These cysts are not unpleasant and are not malignant. They have the potential to enlarge and become bothersome.

A hydrocele develops when fluid accumulates around the testicles. Common hydroceles may cause discomfort or get infectious.

Hematocele: A hematocele is a testicular encircled by blood. Usually, an injury is the cause of this.

A clump of unusually big veins close to the testicles is known as a varicocele. The afflicted testicle may experience a subtle soreness from these big veins while doing regular tasks. When you are lying down, the testicle pain usually gets better. Varicoceles are sometimes surgically treated and can occasionally impede a woman's ability to conceive.

Torsion of the testicle's blood supply is referred to as testicular torsion. This stops the testicle's blood flow and causes acute, terrible pain. Any time can be a time for torsion. To preserve the testicle, quick surgery is required for this situation.

Kidney stones: When you are dehydrated, kidney stones are more likely to occur. Back, groin, and scrotum discomfort can be brought on by stones that become lodged in the ureters, the tubes that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder. If fluid intake is increased, little stones could pass. Larger stones can require surgery.

Men who have undergone a vasectomy may have testicular discomfort afterwards. A post-vasectomy pain syndrome may emerge from this pain, which is brought on by increased pressure in the epididymis or vas deferens (tubes delivering sperm).

Testicular carcinoma is the most prevalent malignancy in men between the ages of 15 and 35. It may occasionally display Testicular swelling or heaviness, a dull discomfort or pain in the groin or testicles, as well as pain in the lower abdomen or scrotum. Testicular cancer can be checked by using imaging techniques on the testicles.

How to check if you have Testicular Pain?

If you experience testicular discomfort or swelling, you should call your doctor right at once, especially if the pain worsens or you feel unwell. Make sure to seek immediate medical attention if you experience any testicular torsion symptoms.

Risk Factors

Any age male or female can experience testicular pain. If you participate in full-contact sports or engage in strenuous physical activity, you may be more susceptible to testicular discomfort.


Schedule a visit with your doctor right away if you experience any of the following:

  • On your scrotum, you detect a lump.
  • You become feverish
  • You recently came into contact with someone who has the mumps if your scrotum is red, heated to the touch, or sensitive.

In the event that you get testicular discomfort, you should:

  • Is abrupt or severe 
  • Accompanied by nausea or vomiting
  • Brought on by a painful injury, or if swelling appears more than an hour later.


Prior to engaging in full-contact sports, always wear an athletic cup and remember to have regular checkups. Before performing dangerous work, you should also put on protective clothing to prevent injury.


Your testicular discomfort could be manageable at home. Some cures to try are:

  • Ice the affected area.
  • If you are lying down, place a towel that has been wrapped up beneath your scrotum.
  • Wear a sports bra or a cup.
  • Take a hot bath.
  • Try over-the-counter painkillers.

Testicular discomfort may be addressed medically if home cures fail. Medications can often be used to lessen pain. These may consist of:

Painkillers: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen, as well as acetaminophen (Tylenol®), can help reduce pain. In situations of damage, trauma, or orchitis, they are frequently recommended.

Medications that fight infections or antibiotics: Antibiotics should be used in order to treat bacterially-induced orchitis or epididymitis.

Tricyclic medicines for depression: Amitriptyline and other medications can be used to help relieve nerve discomfort.

Although testicular pain rarely requires surgery, you might need it if you have an urgent condition like testicular torsion or testicular cancer.

There are several testicular surgery varieties, depending on the reason, such as:

  • The purpose of testicular detorsion surgery is to untwist the spermatic cord and re-establish blood flow to the testicle or testicles. To stop the testicle from twisting again, your surgeon will sew sutures around it. To avoid further torsion, the opposing side of the testicle is also sewn.
  • If your hernia cannot be pushed back into your abdomen or otherwise made smaller, surgery to fix it is required.
  • Epididymectomy: The epididymis is a collection of skinny tubes that are tightly coiled and contain sperm.
  • From the sperm ducts to the testicles. Your epididymis could be removed by a surgeon if the discomfort is severe. It is uncommon to do this; instead, medical interventions are usually explored first.
  • Vasovasostomy: For men who experience testicular discomfort following a vasectomy, a vasovasostomy is the reversal of a vasectomy. Reversing the vasectomy can alleviate testicular discomfort brought on by vasectomies. This is often carried out as an outpatient operation.
  • Shockwave lithotripsy: This minimally invasive therapy breaks up kidney stones by forcing air through shockwaves.
  • Micro Denervation of the Spermatic Cord (MDSC): This procedure is carried out while the patient is sedated. The surgeon will usually use an operating microscope to dissect and cut the nerves passing through the spermatic cord in order to relieve or lessen testicular pain.
  • Orchiectomy: Rarely, you may need to have the testicle removed (orchiectomy) if medication or less invasive procedures do not relieve your testicle pain. This is a last-ditch surgery.
  • When you have testicular cancer, your doctor will operate to remove it. After the procedure, the testicle is examined under a microscope to identify the kind of testicular cancer. This determines if you need more therapy.
  • Keep in mind that it is crucial to regularly care for your wound after surgery to avoid infection. Observe your doctor's directions when it comes to cleaning your wound.
  • Additionally, you will be given warning signs to look out for in case it is contracting an infection. At your subsequent appointment, your wound will be examined.

Whether testicular pain is acute or chronic will determine how long it lasts. If you had a minor injury from a fall or a quick strike, it should only hurt for an hour or so. Consult a doctor right away if your pain persists or worsens after that time.

Complications of Testicular Pain

One healthy testicle often produces enough sperm for you to conceive children. Normal erection onset and maintenance ought to be possible. Your hormone (testosterone) levels need to be constant as well. Sometimes, men who have undergone surgery for testicular torsion have lower sperm counts. Additionally, they may have antibodies in their bodies that interfere with the sperm's movement. You can have a reduced sperm count if you have experienced testicular torsion when you were young. If you are having trouble becoming pregnant, you might need to get your sperm count examined.

The majority of cases of testicular discomfort respond well to medical treatment. Your testicles and scrotum may sustain lifelong harm from an untreated infection like chlamydia or a severe illness like testicular torsion.

Reproduction and fertility may be impacted by the damage. Gangrene brought on by testicular torsion might result in a potentially fatal infection that can spread throughout your body.


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Page last reviewed: May 15, 2023

Next review due: May 15, 2025

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