Kidney Stones Explained: Types, Treatments, Symptoms, Causes & Prevention

What is a kidney stone?

Kidney stones are small pieces of stone that form in the kidneys. They may be painful or not. Kidney stones are tiny crystals that form in the kidneys and pass out through urine. They are hard lumps that develop inside the kidney.

A kidney stone is a solid item that is created from urine-based compounds. Kidney stones can be made of calcium oxalate, uric acid, struvite, or cystine. A kidney stone may be treated with shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy or nephrolithotripsy.

Common symptoms include severe lower back pain, blood in the urine, nausea, vomiting, a fever, chills, and bad-smelling or cloudy-looking urine.

Our body relieves various kinds of wastes through urine, when the level of liquid urine reduces and still it has too much waste in it, then the crystals start to form in the body in the form of kidney stones. The crystals and other elements together start forming larger solids, since during this time they are not able to  pass through the urine. Usually, these chemicals are eliminated in the urine by the body's master chemist, i.e., the kidney. Stone does not form until or unless liquid urine passing level has decreased or crystals have started forming. In majority people, having a good amount of liquid washes or other chemicals in urine stops a stone from forming. The chemicals forming the stone are calcium, oxalate, urate, cystine, xanthine, and phosphate.

Once chemicals have crystallized into a stone, the stone may remain in the kidney or descend into the ureter and enter the urinary system. Sometimes, very little stones leave the body through the urine without causing too much discomfort. However, immobile stones can result in a urine backup in the kidney, ureter, bladder, or urethra. The anguish is brought on by this.


How common are kidney stones?

Every year thousands of people suffer from an emergency kidney stone health problem. Out of 10 people at least 2 people suffer from kidney stone problems in their lives.

During the late 1970s kidney stones in the United States increased from 3.8%  8.8% in the late 2000s. During 2013–2014 the prevalence of kidney stones was 10%. The risk of kidney stones is about 11% in male and 9% in females. Other diseases such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity may increase the risk for kidney stones.


Symptoms of kidney stones

Kidney stone varies in the sizes and due to the sizes the pain increases or decreases. Like some of the kidney stones are as small as a grain of sand. Others are as large as a pebble. A few are as large as a golf ball! In general, the pain and symptoms are immediately highlighted as the size of the kidney stone as it causes a lot of pain and shows noticeable symptoms.

The symptoms could be one or more from any of the following:

  • Severe pain on either side of your lower back
  • More vague pain or stomach ache that doesn't go away
  • Blood in the urine
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fever and chills
  • Urine that smells bad or looks cloudy

When a kidney stone irritates or blocks the urinary tract, pain develops. Extreme pain is quickly intensified by this. Kidney stones typically move through the body without harm, but generally not without excruciating pain. For tiny stones, pain medications might be the only thing required. Especially for stones that result in long-lasting discomfort or other consequences, additional treatment may be required. Surgery, however, might be necessary in extreme circumstances.


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Causes of kidney stones

Possible contributing factors include inadequate hydration, excessive or insufficient activity, obesity, weight loss surgery, and a diet high in salt or sugar. Some people could value family history and infections. Consuming excessive amounts of fructose is associated with a higher risk of kidney stone formation. High fructose corn syrup and table sugar both include fructose.

Kidney stone is a common problem, anyone can get a kidney stone. Ratio of men getting kidney stones are more likely than women. Kidney stones are also more common in non-Hispanic white people than in people of other ethnicities. You may also be more likely to get a kidney stone if you: 

  • Consume a lot of sodium (salt), or sugar or protein
  • Insufficient water intake
  • An overweight
  • Might have had a surgery on your intestines
  • Have had kidney stones before
  • Have polycystic kidney disease
  • Have a health problem that causes your urine (pee) to contain high levels of cystine, oxalate, uric acid or calcium
  • Swelling or damage in your digestive system or on your joints due to any health problems


Types of kidney stone

There are four main types of stones:

  • Calcium oxalate: The most typical kidney stone is calcium oxalate, which is produced when calcium and oxalate mix in urine. Inadequate calcium and fluid intake, among other factors, may aid in their development.
  • Uric acid: This is yet another typical kidney stone type. Foods rich in purines, a naturally occurring chemical component, include organ meats and shellfish. Increased monosodium urate production results from excessive purine intake, and under the correct circumstances, this substance may produce kidney stones. These kinds of stones frequently develop in families.
  • Struvite: These stones are less common and are caused by infections in the upper urinary tract.
  • Cystine: These stones are rare and tend to run in families. What are Cystine Stones? Cystine Stones are made up of hard mass which is formed by collection of chemicals. The chemical itself is called Cystine so, it is called as Cystine Stones. 

For more information contact or consult Medrec Hospital to have a detailed counseled session or take precautions in any kind of confusion. 


Also Read : 9 Common Causes Of Back Pain : Diagnosis & Doctor Consultation

Diagnosis of kidney stones

A medical history, physical examination, and imaging testing are the first steps in the diagnosis of a kidney stone. The precise size and shape of the kidney stones will be required by your specialists. This can be accomplished with a high resolution CT scan from the kidneys to the bladder or a KUB x-ray (kidney, ureter, and bladder x-ray), which will display the size and location of the stone.

The surgeons frequently get a KUB x-ray to establish whether the stone may be treated with shock waves. Although the CT scan is frequently favored for diagnosis, the KUB test may be used to monitor your stone both before and after therapy. A unique sort of X-ray of the urinary system called an intravenous pyelogram, or lVP, which is done after injecting a dye, may also be prescribed by doctors for some patients.

Furthermore, the treatments for your stone will be decided by your doctors. Blood and urine tests will be used to assess the condition of your kidneys. We will take into account your overall health as well as the size and location of your stone.

Your doctor will later seek to determine what caused the stone. Your doctor will check your blood for calcium, phosphorus, and uric acid in addition to analyzing the stone once it has been removed from your body. In order to test for calcium and uric acid, the doctor can additionally ask you to keep track of your urine for 24 hours.


Treatment of kidney stones

Kidney stones are treated similarly in adults and children. You could be instructed to consume a lot of water. Without performing surgery, doctors try to let the stone pass. You can also be prescribed medicine to lessen the acidity of your urine. However, surgery is required to remove it if it is too large, obstructs the passage of urine, or shows signs of infection.

With the help of high-intensity sound waves, the stones are broken up during the noninvasive technique known as shock-wave lithotripsy, making them easier to flow through the urine. In ureteroscopy, the stone is removed or destroyed by inserting an endoscope through the ureter. Rarely, doctors will utilize percutaneous dialysis for very large or difficult stones. 

Assumptions of having kidney stones by checking the symptoms than What do I do?

Visit or Consult a doctor immediately. Nothing is more than health. Heavy liquid consumption will be prescribed or suggested so that stone can pass through urine in a natural process. If you strain your urine and can save a piece of the stone that has passed, bring it to your doctor or, the stone may need to be removed with surgery.


Doctors examine the contents of the stone?

Four different kinds of stones exist. Investigating the stone can help you learn why you have it and how to lower your chances of developing further stones. Calcium is present in the most prevalent kind of stone. An everyday component of a balanced diet is calcium. Normally, surplus calcium that the body doesn't need is removed by the kidney. People who have stones frequently retain too much calcium. A stone is created when this calcium interacts with waste materials like oxalate. The most typical mixture is known as calcium oxalate.

Less frequent types of stones include struvite stones, which are caused by infections and include magnesium and ammonia, and uric acid stones, which are made of monosodium urate crystals and may be caused by obesity and dietary variables. The most uncommon kind of stone is a cystine stone, which typically runs in families.



There are 50% chances of the patients who had developed a kidney stone and again to redevelop within the coming 5 to 7 years, but again it is not mandatory also.  High chances of getting chronic kidney disease due to kidney stones. lf you have had one stone, you have increased chances of having another stone. 


Prevention of kidney stones

  • Sufficient consumption of water helps you to stay hydrated as well helps to pass products through urine effectively.
  • To understand if you are well hydrated, check urine yellow which should be light yellow in color, darker urine shows lack of healthiness or concentration. 
  • Consume more fruits or vegetables which contain a lot of water to keep you going such as watermelon, oranges, strawberries, cucumbers, skim milk, tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, grapes, coconut water.
  • Minimum 2.5 liters of water should be taken to keep ourselves hydrated and clear waste products from the body.
  • Consult healthcare professionals or doctors for proper guidance on health to get rid of kidney stones or else they will suggest some better ways to stay healthy through a good diet or sports, exercises etc.
  • Always depend on water rather than soft drinks, soft drinks, sugar drinks etc.
  • Have more fruits and vegetables, which helps in making the urine less acidic. When the urine is less acidic, then chances are very less to form stones.
  • Animal protein intake produces more uric acid, which can increase your risk for kidney stones.
  • Reduce salt consumption and salty snacks or food to keep yourself healthy.

To keep yourself healthy, active and fit we need to balance our body weight first. We do all kinds of work mentally or physically only when we feel active, carrying overweight causes a lot many problems in daily life and health wise also.  Keeping a few kilos extra is good but not carrying too much body weight is good. Equals or less body weight have less chances of having kidney stones as compared to heavy or overweight people due to too much consumption of food and no proper digestion. 

Medrec has good facilities of diet programmes and health experts to train or guide you on being overweight. For further information contact us.

Don't be perplexed by your "calcium" stone. Dairy products contain calcium, but because calcium binds with oxalate before it enters the kidneys, they actually help avoid stones. Those who consume the least calcium through their diet are more likely to develop kidney stones. Potassium, protein byproducts, and salt all have the potential to turn into stones.

A calcium oxalate stone is the most typical kind of kidney stone. The majority of kidney stones are created when oxalate, a byproduct of several diets, binds to calcium while the kidneys are producing urine. When the body has too much salt and not enough water, both oxalate and calcium levels rise. Your doctor will decide which kinds of dietary adjustments are required in your unique situation based on blood and urine tests.

Some herbal remedies are marketed as aiding in stone prevention. You should be aware that there is insufficient medical research supporting the usage of any supplement or herb to prevent stones.

See your doctor and/or a registered dietitian about making diet changes if you have had a stone or think you could be at increased risk for getting a kidney stone. To guide you, they need to know your medical history and the food you eat. 

If you've had a stone or believe your risk of obtaining one may be higher, talk to your doctor and/or a qualified dietitian about changing your diet. They need to be aware of your dietary habits and medical history in order to counsel you.

Ask a doctor or visit Medrec Hospital to solve all your queries?

  • What foodstuffs can result in kidney stones?
  • Should I supplement my diet with vitamins and minerals?
  • Which drinks are suitable for me? 


Do kidney stones occur in children?

Till 5 years of age kidney stones are found in children. It’s a common problem in children, pediatric consult in such cases through medical physical examinations or suggestions as per condition of children's health. Due to insufficient intake of water and liquid fluids, it tends to occur in children. Another common reason is due to intake or consumption of salt, as kids are fond of eating salty snacks more like french fries, all different types of chips, potatoes, spinach chips, banana chips etc.

There are many other salty foods such as salty chickpeas, fried-roasted groundnuts, sandwich meats etc. Sweetened beverages or sodas high consumption can also help to increase the risk of stones, if they contain high fructose corn syrup.


A note from Medrec Hospital

“Health is wealth, and if wealth is good, then nothing can stop you from achieving your goals.” Any health issue whether it’s a small or equivalent to no, should never be avoided. Good care should be taken for ownself and with people who are with us.

Kidney stone treatments and surgeries are available at Medrec Hospital Jehanabad Bihar.

Specialized Experts available for your Kidney stones treatments in Jehanabad. The hospital gives you treatment within a reasonable budget, with all X-ray, Scanning, pharmacy etc.  and many more facilities. Reach out to us. In case, if anyone feels these kinds of symptoms or causes of kidney stones. Don’t wait for anything, you can immediately contact Medrec Hospital. Medrec has free counseling sessions, they are available 24 x 7 with all facilities near by you all, with excellent infrastructure, emergency ambulance facility, taken care by multiple doctors and staff members. Good hospitality is provided even for patient’s families.  The good news is that we are even available on virtual mode to keep you motivated, for counseling by understanding what kind of problem you are going through. Don’t hesitate to make an appointment, call or use an online facility. If you find any of your friends, colleagues or relatives going through any kind of health problems, suggest they consult Medrec Hospitals. 

They are specialized in many more treatments like Urology (Urethral and Cervical Stent Placements, Removal of Bladder Stones, Ablation Therapy for Heavy Menstruation and Abnormal Bleeding, Tests for Erectile Dysfunction and Sperm Analysis, Management of Incontinence and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Treatment for urinary incontinence, Vaginal Mesh Procedures, Biofeedback Therapy for Bladder Leakage), Paediatrics (Immunizations, Minor and Major surgery, General diagnostic services, Speech therapy, Pediatric psychology evaluations) , Mental Health (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Group Therapy, Family therapy, Guided imagery, Supervised visitation for parents with mental health concerns), Gynaecologist and Obstetrician (Vasectomy and Tubectomy, Cesarean Section (CS) Management, GYNO Surgery, Prenatal Care and Ultrasounds, Fully-equipped Maternity Wards, Emergency delivery services), General Physician (medical examinations, physical examinations, laboratory testings, and other medical services.), kidney stones, etc, and they do have an expertise team available for you all health problems 24 x 7.  MedRec Hospital and Research Centre is located in Jehanabad, Bihar and for more information you can contact us @+91 89686 77907. 


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